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This leads to the engagement of phosphatase Src homology domains containing tyrosin phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) and activation of the ras/raf/Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MAPK) pathway.In addition, signal transducer and activator of transcription factors are recruited, which are phosphorylated, and consequently dimerize whereupon they translocate into the nucleus and activate target genes.
SLE can affect any organ system, but it mainly involves the skin, joints, kidneys, blood cells, and nervous system (see Presentation).
The diagnosis of SLE must be based on the proper constellation of clinical findings (see the image below) and laboratory evidence.
In patients with suggestive clinical findings, a family history of autoimmune disease should raise further suspicion of SLE. The diagnosis of SLE is based on a combination of clinical findings and laboratory evidence.
Familiarity with the diagnostic criteria helps clinicians to recognize SLE and to subclassify this complex disease based on the pattern of target-organ manifestations.
SLE is a chronic autoimmune disease that can affect almost any organ system; thus, its presentation and course are highly variable, ranging from indolent to fulminant.